1. Introduction                                                       

2. Ordinary Assignment: ax and (a)x                                 

3. Strand Assignment: (a;b)(x;y)                                     

4. Value and Value in Context Assignment                              

4a. Value: %`var                                                      

4b. Value in Context: `ctx%`var                                       

4c. Value and Value in Context Assignment: (%`var)x and (`ctx%`var)x

5. Bracket Index Selective Assignment: a[i;j;;k]x                   

5a. Repeated Indices                                                  

5b. Replace All: a[]b                                                

5c. Append: a[,]b                                                    

6. Choose-Pick Selective Assignment: (i#pa)x                        

7. Primitive Functions in Selective Assignment Expressions            

1. Introduction                                                       

The purpose of this tutorial is to familiarize the reader with the A+ 
primitive function called assignment, or specification. This primitive
is the one to use for initializing and modifying the values of        
variables. Ordinary assignment is of the form ab, where the term     
ordinary refers to the simple form of the construct to the left of the
arrow. Selective assignment allows for more complicated constructs on 
the left, whereby subarrays of the values of variables are replaced.  

It is possible to create functions with ordinary assignment when there
is a function expression to the right of the assignment arrow.        
Function assignment is not a topic for this tutorial, however; see the
A+ Reference Manual. In addition, ordinary assignment has a special   
side effect when used in the left argument of a dyadic do statement.  

This tutorial is made up of textual descriptions and A+ examples. You 
should set up your emacs environment to have two visible buffers, one 
holding the tutorial and the other an A+ session. If you are currently
reading this in emacs, simply press F4.                               

To bring individual expressions from the tutorial into the A+ session,
place the cursor on the expression and press F2; for function         
definitions place the cursor anywhere in the definition and press F3. 
It is assumed that the expressions and functions are brought into the 
A+ session when you first encounter them, unless there are explicit   
directions to the contrary.                                           

If you need more help on running emacs and A+, see the Getting Started

2. Ordinary Assignment                                                

Ordinary assignment associates a value, i.e. an array, with a variable
name. For example:                                                    

	a2 3                                                               

In the latter case the assignment is to the variable b in the context 
named c:                                                              

	$cx c      		 Enter the context named c  
 b				 b is in the context c 
 	$cx .			 Return to the root context
 a				 a is in the root context

Ordinary assignment can also be expressed in the form (a)b. When used
inside a function definition, any appearance of ab means that a will 
be a local variable, while the form (a)b can be used to assign a     
value to the global variable a.                                       

3. Strand Assignment                                                  

Several ordinary assignments can be incorporated into one by way of   
strand assignment. For example:                                       

	(a;c.b)('ABC';10+3 4)                                              

Strand assignment is important when working with dependencies. See the
discussion of commit and cancel for sets of dependencies in the       
section on Cyclic Dependencies in the A to A+ document.               

4. Value and Value in Context Assignment                              

Symbols are convenient form for managing names in A+ applications, and
there is a primitive function that evaluates symbols holding the names
of global variables.                                                  

4a. Value                                                             

Value is the monadic primitive function denoted by % that takes a     
symbol holding a global variable name as its argument and produces the
value of the global variable. For example, your A+ session should now 
be in the root context, and we can then continue the above example as 

 10 11 12 13			                                                       
 14 15 16 17			                                                       
 18 19 20 21			                                                       

 4b. Value in Context                                                 

Value in Context is the dyadic primitive denoted by %, which permits a
symbol on the left representing the context of the variable on the    

	`%`a	 	 The empty symbol ` denotes the root context                   
 10 11 12 13			                                                       
 14 15 16 17			                                                       
 18 19 20 21			                                                       

4c. Value and Value in Context Assignment                             

Both Value and Value in Context can be used on the left side of       

 100 110 120 130	
 140 150 160 170
 180 190 200 210

Both Value and Value in Context assignment are important when working 
with callback functions. See the A to A+ document for discussions of  
callback functions.                                                   

5. Bracket Index Selective Assignment                                 

Just as bracket indexing can be used to select subarrays, it can also 
be used on the left side of the assignment arrow to specify subarrays.
Here are a series of examples applying bracket index selective        
assignment to a variable x.  The examples have been chosen to make it 
fairly easy to look at x after each assignment to verify that you     
understand the change that took place.                                

 	x3 5 6                                                            
	x[0;0;0]50		 Specify the element at coordinates (0,0,0)   
	x[0;1]100+6		 Specify the rank one cell at coordinates (0,1)        
	x[0;1;]200+6		 Specify the same rank one cell in a different way    
	x[2]1000+x[2]		 Specify the second item                              
 	x[2;;]1000+x[2]	 Specify the same item in a different way          

Any bracket index expression that can be used to select a subarray can
be used to replace that subarray. The replacement array must have the 
same shape as the indexed subarray, or it must have one element. In   
the latter case, the one element in the replacement array replaces    
every element of the indexed subarray.                                

	x3 5 6		 Restart     
	x[1 2;;2+2 2]                                                      
 2 5 2 2                                                              
	x[1 2;;2+2 2]100+x[1 2;;2+2 2]                                    
	x[1 2;;2+2 2]1000 	                                                

5a. Repeated Indices                                                  

What about repeated elements in the bracket index expression? Let's   
look at a simple example:                                             

	y[2 2 2] 30 40 50	                                                  

The question is: element y[2] is associated with three distinct       
elements for replacement: 30, 40, and 50. What is the value of y[2]   
after the above assignment? The answer is: the one with the highest   
index in the ravel of the right argument.                             


Another example:                                                      

	y[2 23 3 3 3 ]2 2 100 200 300 400                                 

Finally, note that Value, Value in Context, and Ravel can be used with
bracket indexed selective assignment.                                 

	z5 6                                                               
	(,%`z)[4 5 6]100 200 300	                                           

5b. Replace All: a[]b                                                

This is a special form of bracket index selective assignment for      
replacing all the elements in the variable named on the left of the   
assignment arrow. Either the shape of the array on the right must be  
identical to the shape of the value of the variable on the left, or   
the array on the right must have one element. In the latter case,     
every element of the array on the left is replaced with the single    
element on the right. For example:                                    

	a3 4                                                               
	a[]?3 4100                                                         
 3 4	

The differences between ab and a[]b are:                            

	ab copies b into a new (replacement) copy of a, but a[]b copies b   
	into the existing a;                                                  

	ab enforces no (prior) compatibility restraints on a and b, but a[]b
	is valid only if a and b have compatible types, and either identical  
	shapes or b has one element.                                          

However, a[]b is the most efficient way to replace an entire mapped  

5c. Append: a[,]b                                                    

This is another special form of bracket index selective assignment for
appending items onto the end of an array. For example:                

	a2 5                                                               
	a[,]10 20 30 40 50                                                  
  0  1  2  3  4			                                                    
  5  6  7  8  9			                                                    
 10 20 30 40 50			                                                    

Execution of a[,]b can be more efficient then aa,b because if there 
is enough unused space in the storage area allocated to a, then b can 
simply be copied into the area at the end of a. This form of          
specification is the most efficient way to update a mapped file.  

6. Choose-Pick Selective Assignment                                   

The basic rule for bracket index selective assignment applies to      
Choose-Pick selective assignment as well: if the arrays i and p are   
such that i#px selects a subarray from x, then:                      


will replace that subarray. Since # denotes the primitive Choose      
function and  denotes the primitive Pick function, this is called    
Choose-Pick selective assignment.                                     

Value, Value in Context, and Ravel can be used with Choose-Pick       
assignment, as in:  	                                                 



	x(1 2 3;5 6;'abced')  A three element boxed vector                 
	1 2#2x bc		                                 
	(1 2#2x)'XY'                       
	(1 2;3 4 5)#1x        
  9 10 1
 15 16 17			                
	((1 2;3 4 5)#1x)100+?2 310                                        

Examine x to see the changes. Another example:                        

	(1 6 17 25#,1x)1000 2000 3000 4000                                 

Examine x now and you will see that the last selective assignment did 
not replace a rectangle subarray of 1x, but instead modified elements
scattered throughout x. This type of scattered assignment is most     
efficiently done to the ravel of the target array; if the array is not
raveled, then Choose can only address these elements one at a time, as

<  1000                                                               
<  2000                                                               
<  3000                                                               
<  4000                                                               

Note the <1x is just 1#x, but the former construct was used to make  
the comparison with the earlier examples easier.                      

It is left to you to make examples using Value and Value in Context.  

7. Primitive Functions in Selective Assignment Expressions            

Some A+ primitive functions can be used in expressions on the left of 
the assignment arrow. They are: Take, Drop, Replicate, Expand, Ravel  
and Item Ravel, Reshape, Rotate and Reverse, and Transpose (monadic   
and dyadic.) Defined functions can also be used, but in the same ways 
as these primitives, and therefore are not discussed here. See the A+ 
Reference Manual.                                                     

For example:                                                          

	a4 5'abcdefghijklmnopqrst'                                         
	(2a)2 5'ABCDEFGHIJ'                                               
	(5a)5 5'abcdefghijKLMNOPQRSTUVWXY'                                

The last result gives us a clue to the definition of this form of     
selective assignment. Let                                             

	(f a)b                                                              

represent the selective assignment for the monadic primitive functions
listed above, where a represents a variable name. Then the definition 
of the assignment is as follows: first evaluate                       

 	if a                                                             

to get an array i, and then do the bracket index selective assignment 


Why does this work? The reasons are these:                            

    the elements of a are exactly all indices of ,a;                

    ^/(,f a),a has the value 1.                                  

Make sure you understand these reasons.                               

Applying the definition to the last example above, evaluate 5a to  
get the index array i:                                                

  0  1  2  3  4			                                                    
  5  6  7  8  9			                                                    
 10 11 12 13 14			                                                    
 15 16 17 18 19			                                                    
  0  0  0  0  0			                                                    

Then evaluate                                                         

	(,a)[i]5 5'abcdefghijKLMNOPQRSTUVWXY'                              

to get the result in the example. The fact that a[0;0] is 'Y' is      
explained by the rule for repeated elements in i (see Repeated        

The definition for the dyadic primitives is similar. In this case the 
right argument a, which must be a name, is the target of the          
assignment and the left argument x is any conformable array for which 
x f a is valid. Then                                                  

	(x f a)b                                                            

is evaluated by                                                       

	ix f a                                                            


Note that the primitive functions listed above all have the property  
that the elements of the intermediate index array i are always a      
subset of a, which means that (,a)[i]b can never fail because of an
index error (see reasons 1) and 2) above.)                            

Value, Value in Context, Pick and Ravel can all be used with this form
of selective assignment. See the A+ Reference Manual.